Cyber-Attack: Its Definition, Regulation, and ASEAN Cooperation to Handle with it

  • Maskun Maskun Universitas Hasanuddin
  • Irwansyah Irwansyah Universitas Hasanuddin
  • Ahsan Yunus Hasanuddin University
  • Armelia Safira Universitas Hasanuddin
  • Siti Nurhalima Lubis Universitas Hasanuddin
Keywords: ASEAN Cooperation, Aggression Crime, Cyber Attack, International Law

Abstract

The development of technology brings changes in human life, and the shift of most human activities to cyberspace is now a challenge for every country in the world. Cyber-attacks are crimes that have developed rapidly with the development of information communication and technology (ICT). Due to its impact, cyber-attacks can be considered as a crime called a crime of aggression. The focus of this paper is to determine the urgency of regulating cyberattacks as a crime of aggression and to find out the extent to which the international community has made cybercrime the focus of contemporary crime research, which is referred to as a crime of aggression. This paper shows that international cooperation is needed to create an international regime that is respected and universally accepted by the international community in relation to cyber-attacks, which can also be referred to as crimes of aggression. It is because cyber-attacks in its nature are transnational crimes and need a cooperation such as the framework of ASEAN to deal with.

References

Books, Journals, Reports

A. Clarke, Richard and K. Knake, Robert, 2011, “Cyber War: The Next Threat To National Security And What To Do About It”, in Oona A. Hathaway, Rebecca Crootof, Philip Levitz, Haley Nix, Aileen Nowlan. William Perdue, and Julia Spiegel, “The Law of Cyber -Attack”, California Law Review, Vol. 100, Num. 4.

Agrafiotis, Ioannis, et.al., 2018, “A Taxonomy of Cyber-harms: Defining the impacts of cyber-attacks and understanding how they Propagate”, Journal of Cybersecurity, Vol. 0, Num. 0.

A. Hathaway, Oona, et.al, 2011, “The Law of Cyber -Attack”, California Law Review, Vol. 100, Num. 4.

C. Hinkle, Katherina, "Countermeasures in the Cyber Context: One More Thing to Worry About", YJIL Online, Vol. 37, Num. 4.

D. Murray, Andrew, 2007, The Regulation of Cyberspace, Control in the Online Environment, New York: Routledge-Cavendish.

D. Swaine, Michael, “Chinese Views on Cybersecurity in Foreign Relations”, China Leadership Monitor, Num. 42, pp. 1-3, https://carnegieendowment.org/files/CLM42MS_092013Carnegie.pdf.

I. Hamonangan, and Z. Assegaff, 2020, “Cyber Diplomacy: Menuju Masyarakat Internasional yang Damai di Era Digital”. Padjadjaran Journal of International Relations, Vol. 1, Num. 4.

Maskun, et al., 2013, “Legal Standing of Cyber Crime in the Development of Contemporary International Law”, legal probs. (Masalah-Masalah Hukum), Vol. 42, Num. 3. https://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/mmh/article/ view/13126/9949.

Moynihan, Harriet, 2019, The Application of International Law to State Cyberattacks: Sovereignty and Non-Intervention, Research Paper on International Law Programme, Chatham House: The Royal Institute of International Affairs.

P. Farwell, James and Rafal Rohozinski, 2011, “Stuxnet and the Future of Cyber War”, Survival, Vol. 53, Num. 1.

Try to, Kornelia, 2016, The Politic of Anonymity: Poland’s Media Discourse on Anonymous Communication Online, Thesis, United Kingdom: Nottingham Trent University.

UNIDIR, 2017, Preserving and Enhancing International Cyber Stability: Regional Realities and Approaches in ASEAN, Singapore: UNIDIR.

Yunandar, Muhammad Aris, 2019, Laporan Utama Kerja Sama Keamanan Siber di ASEAN dalam Menyambut Industri 4.0, Masyarakat ASEAN, Jakarta: Dirjen Kerjasama ASEAN.

Internet

Anonym, “Indonesia Suarakan Stabilitas Siber di PBB”, https://kemlu.go.id/portal/id/read/1327/view/indonesia-suarakan-stabilitas-siber-di-pbb, accessed on May 23, 2020,

Australia Signal Directorate, “History of Australia Signal Directorate”, https://www.asd.gov.au/about/history, accessed on December 2020.

Erwin Prima, “Bunuh Soleimani Drone MQ-9 Reaper AS Paling Ditakuti di Dunia (Tempo Online)” https://tekno.tempo.co/read/1294958/bunuh-soleimani-drone-mq-9-reaper-as-paling-ditakuti-di-dunia/full&view=ok, accessed on January 13, 2020,

National Cyber and Crypto Agency, “Presidential Decree (Perpres) No. 53 of 2017 concerning on State Cyber and Code Agency (BSSN)”, https://jdih.bssn.go.id/arsip-hukum/presidential-regulation-of-the-republic-of-indonesia-number-133-year-2017-concerning-amendment-to-presidential-regulation-number-53-year-2017-concerning-national-cyber-and-crypto-agency, accessed 23 December 2020.

Optimists CSOC, "Cyber Security Operation Center: Foresee, monitor, detect and react, https://www.optimesys.com/cyber-security-operations-center, accessed on 22 December 2020

Sarah McKune, "An Analysis of the International Code of Conduct for Information Security", https://citizenlab.ca/2015/09/international-code-of-conduct/, accessed 5 September 2020.
Published
2021-11-30
How to Cite
Maskun, M., Irwansyah, I., Yunus, A., Safira, A., & Lubis, S. N. (2021). Cyber-Attack: Its Definition, Regulation, and ASEAN Cooperation to Handle with it. Jambe Law Journal, 4(2), 131-150. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.22437/jlj.4.2.131-150
Section
Articles